Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ)
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) provides that the areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction (ABNJ) include:
- the water column beyond the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), or beyond the Territorial Sea where no EEZ has been declared, called the High Seas (Article 86); and
- the seabed which lies beyond the limits of the continental shelf, established in conformity with Article 76 of the Convention, designated as "the Area" (Article 1).
Kimball, L.A. (2005) 1
References & Websites
- Kimball, Lee A. (2005). The International Legal Regime of the High Seas and the Seabed Beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction and Options for Cooperation for the establishment of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Marine Areas Beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Technical Series no. 19, 64 pages.